Teihivenator gen. nov., A new generic name for the Tyrannosauroid Dinosaur "Laelaps" Macropus (Cope, 1868; preoccupied by Koch, 1836)

  • Chan-gyu Yun 1Vertebrate Paleontological Institute of Incheon, Incheon 21974, Republic of Korea 2Biological Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Republic of Korea


Once referred to the ornithomimosaur 'Coelosaurus' antiquus, 'Laelaps' macropusspecimens from the Navesink Formation (Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous) of New Jersey, USA was separated as a new species of 'Laelaps' by paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope in 1868. While it was revealed later that 'Laelaps' is preoccupied by laelapidae mite Laelaps agilis and renamed as Dryptosaurus, the taxonomic history of 'Laelaps' macropuswas controversial and sometimes considered as dubious. Here I show 'Laelaps' macropusas a valid taxon of tyrannosauroid based on comparisons with other taxa; there are considerable differences between 'Laelaps' macropusand Dryptosaurus aquilunguis. Therefore, a new generic name for 'Laelaps' macropus,Teihivenatorgen. nov. is erected here.


Baird D. Upper Cretaceous reptiles from the Severn Formation of Maryland. 1986; 3: 63-85.

Brochu CA. Osteology of Tyrannosaurus rex: insights from a nearly complete skeleton and high-resolution computed tomographic analysis of the skull. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 2003; 22(sup4): 1-38.

Brusatte SL, Benson RB, Norell MA. The anatomy of Dryptosaurus aquilunguis (Dinosauria: Theropoda) and a review of its tyrannosauroid affinities. American Museum Novitates. 2011 (3717): 1-53.

Brusatte SL, Carr TD, Norell MA. The osteology of Alioramus, a gracile and long-snouted tyrannosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. 2012; 366: 1-197.

Brusatte SL, Carr TD. The phylogeny and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs. Scientific Reports. 2016; 6: 20252. doi: 10.1038/srep20252.

Cope, E.D., On the genus Laelaps, American Journal of Science, 1868; 2: 415-417.

Cope, E.D., Synopsis of the extinct Batrachia, Reptilia and Aves of North America, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 1870, 14, 1-252.

Carpenter K. The oldest Late Cretaceous dinosaurs in North America?. 1982; 3: 11-17

Carr TD, Williamson TE. Diversity of late Maastrichtian Tyrannosauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from western North America. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 2004; 142(4): 479-523.

Carpenter, K., Miles, C., Cloward, K.,New small theropod from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming. In: Carpenter, K. (Ed).The Carnivorous Dinosaurs, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. 2005.

Carr TD, Williamson TE, Schwimmer DR. A new genus and species of tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous (Middle Campanian) Demopolis Formation of Alabama. Journal of vertebrate Paleontology. 2005; 25(1): 119-43.

Carr TD, Williamson TE. Bistahieversor sealeyi, gen. et sp. nov., a new tyrannosauroid from New Mexico and the origin of deep snouts in Tyrannosauroidea. Journal of vertebrate Paleontology. 2010; 30(1): 1-6.

Choiniere JN, Clark JM, Forster CA, Norell MA, Eberth DA, Erickson GM, Chu H, Xu X. A juvenile specimen of a new coelurosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Middle–Late Jurassic Shishugou Formation of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 2014; 12(2): 177-215.

Hay OP, Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey, 1902; 179: 1-868.

TR Holtz Jr, The arctometatarsalian pes, an unusual structure of the metatarsus of Cretaceous Theropoda (Dinosauria: Saurischia) Journal of vertebrate Paleontology. 1995; 14 (4): 480-519

Holtz, T.R., Tyrannosauroidea. In: Weishampel, D.B., Dodson, P., Osmolska, H. (Eds),The Dinosauria: Second Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley. 2004; 2: 111-36

Horner JR, Goodwin MB. Extreme cranial ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus. PLoS One. 2009; 4(10): e7626. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007626.

Koch KL. Deutschlands Crustaceen, Myriapoden und Arachniden: ein Beitrag zur deutschen Fauna,[mit Erläuterungsbl.]. 22. Pustet; 1838: 40.

Leidy, J., Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge,1865, 14, 1-135.

Lü J, Yi L, Brusatte SL, Yang L, Li H & Chez L. A new clade of Asian Late Cretaceous long-snouted tyrannosaurids. Nature communications, 2014; 5(3788):1-10 doi: 10.1038/ncomms4788.

Marsh OC. Notice of a new and gigantic dinosaur, Titanosaurus. American Journal of Science. 1877; (79): 87-8.

Molnar, R.E., Kurzanov, S.M.,Dong, Z., Carnosauria. In: Weishampel, D.B., Dodson, P., Osmolska, H. (Eds),The Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkeley. 1990.

Matthew WD, Brown B. The family Deinodontidae, with notice of a new genus from the Cretaceous of Alberta. By Order of the Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History. 1922; 46: 367-385.

Royal College of Surgeons of England. Museum. Descriptive catalogue of the fossil organic remains of Reptilia and Pisces contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Taylor & Francis; 1854: 184

Persons IV WS, Currie PJ. An approach to scoring cursorial limb proportions in carnivorous dinosaurs and an attempt to account for allometry. Scientific Reports. 2016; 6:19828. doi: 10.1038/srep19828.

Ross MR, Fastovsky DE. Trans-Atlantic correlations of Upper Cretaceous marine sediments: The Mid-Atlantic (USA) and Maastricht (Netherlands) regions Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences. 2006; 28: 34-44. [27] Steel, R., Part 14. Saurischia. Handbuch der Paläoherpetologie/Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology. Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1970, Stuttgart, 1–87.

Schwimmer, D.L., Late Cretaceous dinosaurs in eastern USA: a taphonomic and biogeographic model of occurrences. In:Wolberg, D.L., Stump, E., Rosenberg, G.D. (Eds), Dinofest International Proceedings. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 1997.

Xu X, Clark JM, Forster CA, Norell MA, Erickson GM, Eberth DA, Jia C, Zhao Q. A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China. Nature. 2006; 439(7077): 715-8.