Antimalarial activity and phytochemical analysis of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina

Odeh A. P, Usman A. A


Blood samples contaminated with Plasmodium spp (Malaria positive blood samples) were obtained from the Microbiology laboratory, Specialist hospital Sokoto and confirmed for the presence of this parasites before the analysis. Also, the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina were collected from villages around permanent site of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto and taken to the herbarium for authentication. Aqueous extract of the leaves were made at different concentration ranging from 20 mg/ml, 40mg/ml, 60mg/ml, 80mg/ml and 100mg/ml.It was observed that the extract showed a higher zone of inhibition (15.0±0.58) at 100mg/ml concentration on Plasmodium malariae and (14.00± 1.00) on Plasmodium falcifarum . Plasmodium ovule showed a moderate zone of inhibition of (14.00±0.58) while Plasmodium vivax showed the least zone of inhibition (13.00±0.57).The analysis was controlled with Coartem (14.3±0.58).The phytochemical screening of the aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina was investigated which showed the presence of Saponins, Tannins, Alkaloids, Cardiac glycosides, Glycosides, Steroids and Anthraquinones which have an antimalarial activity on Plasmodium parasites.

Key words: Blood samples, Plasmodium spp, Vernonia amygdalina, Concentrations, Zone of inhibition and Phytochemical analysis.

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